Finland-Swede writers and artists

As hinted in the introduction, the Finland-Swedes have contributed a good deal to literature and art. The Encyclopædia Britannica presents entries for the following 20 Swedish authors active in the 19th century:

Bremer, Fredrika, 1801-65

Franzén, Frans Michael, 1772-1847

Runeberg, Johan Ludvig, 1804-77

Snellman, Johan Vilhelm, 1806-81

Topelius, Zacharias, 1818-98

Almqvist, Carl Jonas Love, 1793-1866

Atterbom, Per Daniel Amadeus, 1790-1855

Fröding, Gustaf, 1860-1911

Geijer, Erik Gustaf, 1783-1847

Heidenstam, Verner von, 1859-1940

Hierta, Lars Johan, 1801-72

Karlfelt, Erik Axel, 1864-1931

Key, Ellen, 1849-1926

Lagerlöf, Selma, 1858-1940

Levertin, Oscar, 1862-1906

Rydberg, Viktor, 1828-95

Snoilsky, Carl, 1841-1903

Stagnelius, Erik Johan, 1793-1823

Strindberg, August, 1849-1912

Tegnér, Esaias, 1782-1846

The first five on the list were born Finland-Swedes--25 percent of all on the list. Since the entire group of Finland-Swedes contained only about six percent of all Swedes, the former obviously are heavily overrepresented as well-known writers.

Still, we have excluded two Finland-Swedish authors of the nineteenth century who are featured in the Encylopædia, Minna Canth (née Johnsson) and Karl Johan ("Kaarlo") Bergbom, who wrote in Finnish and thus were not Swedish writers. The other Finnish writers with entries in the Encyclopædia, Juhani Aho (né Brofelt), Aleksis Kivi (né Stenvall) and Johannes Linnankoski (né Johan Viktor Peltonen), seem to have grown up with Finnish as their first language, even if none of them was of pure Finnish descent.

Since the Encyclopædia enters only one Swedish and two Finland-Swedish composers active in the 19th century, let us look at Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians instead. There we find fourteen Swedes and seven Finland-Swedes (all born 1770-1869):

Crusell, Bernhard, 1775-1839

Flodin, Karl, 1858-1925

Genetz, Emil, 1852-1930

Järnefelt, Andreas ("Armas"), 1869-1958

Kajanus, Robert, 1856-1933

Sibelius, Johan ("Jean"), 1865-1957

Wegelius, Martin, 1846-1906

Almqvist, Carl Jonas Love, 1793-1866

Berwald, Johan Fredrik, 1787-1861

Berwald, Franz, 1796-1868

Brendler, Frans Fredric Eduard, 1800-31

Hallén, Andreas, 1846-1925

Hallström, Ivar, 1826-1901

Josephson, Axel, 1818-80

Lindblad, Adolf, 1801-78

Lindblad, Otto, 1809-64

Norman, Ludvig, 1831-85

Peterson-Berger, Wilhelm, 1867-1942

Sjögren, Emil, 1853-1918

Söderman, August, 1832-76

Wennerberg, Gunnar, 1817-1901

The first seven of these were born Finland-Swedes, which constitutes a full third of them all. Two of the Finland-Swedes, Crusell and Järnefelt, moved to Sweden. Beyond these the Baker's also features four Finns active as composers in the 19th century, one of whom, Ilmari Krohn, of German descent. (The other three are Hannikainen, Kotilainen and Merikanto.) Fredrik Pacius (1809-91), the prime mover of Finnish musical life from 1835, a full German, is not included.

Looking in vain for famous Swedish painters in the Encyclopædia Britannica, we may turn instead to The Dictionary of Art. This Dictionary presents biographies of the following 41 Swedish speaking painters:

Berndtson, Gunnar, 1854-95

Churberg, Fanny, 1845-99

Edelfelt, Albert, 1854-1905

Ekman, Robert Wilhelm, 1808-73

Finnberg, Gustaf Wilhelm, 1784-1833

Gallen-Kallela, Axel, 1865-1931

Holmberg, Werner, 1830-60

Jansson, Karl Emanuel, 1846-74

Järnefelt, Erik ("Eero"), 1863-1937

Lauréus, Alexander, 1783-1823

Lindholm, Berndt, 1841-1914

Munsterhjelm, Hjalmar, 1840-1905

Schjerfbeck, Helene, 1862-1946

Thesleff, Ellen, 1869-1954

Westerholm, Victor, 1860-1919

Wiik, Maria, 1863-1928

Wright, Ferdinand von, 1822-1906

Wright, Magnus von ,1805-68

Wright, Wilhelm von, 1810-87

Bergh, Edvard, 1828-80

Bergh, Richard, 1858-1919

Cederström, Gustaf, 1845-1933

Eugen (Prince), 1865-1947

Fahlcrantz, Carl Johan, 1774-1861

Forsberg, Nils, 1842-1934

Hill, Carl Fredrik, 1849-1911

Höckert, Johan Fredrik, 1826-66

Jansson, Eugène, 1862-1915

Jernberg, August, 1826-96

Josephson, Ernst, 1851-1906

Kronberg, Julius, 1850-1921

Larsson, Carl, 1853-1919

Larsson, Marcus, 1825-64

Malmström, August, 1829-1901

Nordenberg, Bengt, 1822-1902

Nordström, Karl, 1855-1923

Rosen, Georg von, 1843-1923

Rydberg, Gustaf, 1835-1933

Wahlberg, Alfred, 1834-1906

Westin, Fredrik, 1782-1862

Zoll, Kilian, 1818-60

The first 19 were born Finland-Swedes, the other 22 count among ordinary Swedes. (In addition to those listed above, the Dictionary features also one 19th century Finnish Painter, Pekka Halonen.) It seems that the Finland-Swedes had about 13 times better chances than other Swedes of getting featured in the Dictionary of Art.

Finally, let us look at the Swedish sculptors presented in the same Dictionary. It appears that two out of seven were Finland-Swedes. The Finn Johannes Takanen is also featured. These are the Finland-Swedes and the Swedes of Sweden:

Runeberg, Walter 1849-83

Vallgren, Wilhelm ("Ville") 1855-1940

Byström, Johan Niklas 1783-1848

Fogelbelrg, Bengt Erland 1786-1854

Hasselberg, Per 1850-94

Molin, Johan Peter 1814-73

Sjöstrand, Carl Eneas 1828-1906

Considering all these prominent creators of works of art, we find altogether 33 Finland-Swedes out of a total of 89. Thus the 3.7 million population of Sweden brought forth 56 such personalities and the 240,000 Finland-Swedes 33. The relation between frequencies per 100,000 inhabitants appears to be one to nine.